Generations of Computers

History of Computer Generations:

The evolution of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the form that we see today. The present day computer, however, has also undergone rapid change during the last 50 years. Generations in computers means a change or improvement in the technology over a period of time.
 
There are 5 Generations of computers they are:
First Generation -> 1940-1956
Second Generation -> 1956-1963
Third Generation -> 1964-1971
Fourth Generation -> 1971-Present
Fifth Generation -> (Present and Beyond) 

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First Generation ( 1940-1956 ):
These computers are designed based on the vacuum tube technology. The computers were large, slow and accurate with high power requirement and large amount of heat generated.
Ex:  ENIAC - (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator)
       EDVAC – (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
       EDSAC - (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)
       UNIVAC - (Universal Automatic Computer)

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Second Generation  ( 1956-1963 ):
These computers used transistors which were a smaller and more reliable devices then vacuum tubes.second generation computers used high level languages, such as COBOL, FORTRAN etc.Operating systems also developed in this period.
Ex: IBM 1401
      IBM 1620

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Third Generation  (1964-1971):
These computers used integrated circuit ( I.C's) These were much efficient than the earlier ones.These computers were highly reliable, cheaper and faster than the second generation computers. 3rd generation computers used Small Scale Integrated circuits(SCIC) and Medium Scale Inegrated Circuits (MSIC).
Ex: IBM 360 
      ICL 1900
      VAX 750    
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Fourth Generation (1971-Present):
These computer used Large Scale Integrated Chips (LSIC). These are very fast, reliable compact and accurate. 4th generation computers replaced SSI and MSI circuits by LSIC (Large Scale Integrated Chips) and VLSI ( Very Large Scale Integration)circuits.
Ex: IBM - PC 

 
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Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond):
Fifth generation computers as aimed specifically at A.I.M (Artificial Intelligence Technology). The speed is externally high in 5th generation computer. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduce to allow the computer to take own decision. Fifth generation computers are still in development stage.



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